The 1870s to the 1920s saw partisan debates over curtailing Chinese and Japanese immigration; "Yellow Peril" diatribes battled strong, missionary-based defenses of the immigrants.
Studies written from the 1920s to the 1960s were dominated by social scientists, who focused on issues of assimilation and social organization, as well as the World War II internment camps.
Soon other Asian-origin groups, such as Korean, Vietnamese, Hmong, and South Asian Americans, were added." For example, while many Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino immigrants arrived as unskilled workers in significant numbers 1850–1905 and largely settled in Hawaii and California, many Vietnamese, Cambodian, and Hmong Americans arrived in the United States as refugees following the Vietnam War. in large numbers on the West Coast in the 1850s and 1860s to work in the gold mines and railroads.
These separate histories have often been overlooked in conventional frameworks of Asian American history. They encountered very strong opposition—violent as riots and physical attacks forced them out of the gold mines (citation needed).
The following cultural patterns may represent many African Americans, but do not represent all people in a community.
Each person is an individual, as well as a community member.
These are not fact lists to apply indiscriminately.
The family may be matriarchal, although father or mother may take on the decision-making role.
Elders are respected and often provide care for their grandchildren.
Institutionalization of elders has historically been avoided, with sons and daughters taking on the family caretaker role.
Asian American history is the history of ethnic and racial groups in the United States who are of Asian descent.
Spickard (2007) shows that "'Asian American' was an idea invented in the 1960s to bring together Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino Americans for strategic political purposes.