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For example, if I form a company called ‘Murphy & Co Ltd’ in which I own one hundred per cent of the shares and am a director and employee, legally speaking the company and myself are two distinct people.

The ‘corporate veil’ surrounds the company of Murphy & Co Ltd and prevents outsiders challenging the operation of the company.

It was held that As soon as citizens form a company, the rights guaranteed to them by article 19(1)c has been exercised and no restraint has been placed on the right and no infringement of that right is made.

Once a company or corporation is formed, the business which is carried on by the such company or corporation is the business of that company or corporation and is not the business of the citizens who get the company or corporation incorporated and the rights of the incorporated body must be judges on that footing and cannot be judged on the assumption that they are the rights attributed to the business of individual citizens.

Separate personality means that the artificial legal person, the company, can do almost everything a human person can do; it can make contracts, employ people, borrow and pay money, sue and be sued, among other things.

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A corporation is a separate legal entity from its owners.

The ‘veil of incorporation’ is the rather poetic term given to this separation of the company from its shareholders or members.

This separation of a company from its members was established in the House of Lords in the famous case. Salomon had a boot manufacturing business which he decided to incorporate into a private limited company.