Distinct differences in the processes of flagellar biosynthesis, DNA uptake and recombination, iron homeostasis, interaction with epithelial cells, and protein glycosylation are highlighted.
Collectively, these studies support a broader view of the vast repertoire of biological mechanisms employed by bacteria and suggest that future studies of the epsilonproteobacteria will continue to provide novel and interesting information regarding prokaryotic cellular biology.
Microbial evolution and subsequent species diversification enable bacterial organisms to perform common biological processes by a variety of means.
The epsilonproteobacteria are a diverse class of prokaryotes that thrive in diverse habitats.
Among these gammaproteobacteria, spp., betaproteobacteria that are often studied to understand mechanisms of DNA uptake, recombination, and antigenic variation.
are medically important human pathogens, they are the best studied of the epsilonproteobacteria.
As such, the genes and biological processes that these bacteria employ are often compared with those found in model pathogens such as spp.
Globally, colonizes the intestinal epithelium and often causes a mild, watery diarrhea to a severe, bloody diarrheal illness, which is estimated to affect over 2 million individuals annually in the United States alone (11, 190, 545, 592).
, transmission to humans is thought to occur via person-to-person contact, primarily at a young age (173, 174, 302, 365, 476).