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Executive Summary TRAFFICKERS Those who recruit, transport, and exploit women and girls span the continuum from a single individual to organized networks (Bruckert & Parent, 2002; UN Office on Drugs and Crime [UNODC], 2010).

The most effective recruiters are those who already have, or who can establish, a trusting relationship with the potential victim or Physical consequences can include neurological issues, gastrointestinal disturbances, respiratory distress, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases (including HIV), urogenital problems, dental problems, fractures, and traumatic brain injuries (Burnette et al., 2008; Farley et al., 2003; Farley, Mac Leod, et al., 2011).

This particular report originated with the Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest. Prevention efforts must consider the institutional structures, social norms, and policy factors that can empower those individuals or constrain individ- trafficking victims.

CONTENTS Acknowledgments v Physical Health Consequences 44 Additional Consequences 44 Responding to Trafficking of Women and Girls 46 Prevention 46 Protection 50 Prosecution and Partnership 51 Program Evaluation: The Challenge 52 Conclusion 52 The Role of the Psychologist 53 Research 53 Executive Summary 1 Introduction and Overview 13 Purpose 13 Background and Definition 13 Methodology 15 Measuring Human Trafficking 19 Methodological Challenges 19 Prevalence and Incidence 20 Risk Factors for the Trafficking of Women and Girls 22 Education and Training 54 Societal and Public Policy Risk Factors 22 Advocacy and Public Policy 54 Community Risk Factors 27 Public Awareness 55 Institutional Risk Factors 27 Practice 55 Interpersonal and Relationship Risk Factors 28 Self-Care and Safety: Ethical Considerations 59 Individual Risk Factors 30 Conclusion 33 Recommendations 62 General Recommendations 62 Describing Human Trafficking 34 Research Recommendations 63 Traffickers, Facilitators, and Perpetrators 34 Practice Recommendations 65 Means of Trafficking 35 Education and Training Recommendations 66 Public Policy Recommendations 66 Public Awareness Recommendations 67 Consequences and Impact of Trafficking 40 Literature Review 40 Mental Health Consequences 40 Notes 69 References 73 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We express great appreciation to the Board for the Advancement Members of the Committee on Women in Psychology (2011–2014) of Psychology in the Public Interest (BAPPI), the Committee on Joan C. Sidun, Psy D, their ongoing support, the task force could not have succeeded in ABPP, ATR (2011 Chair); Cheryl L. Human trafficking is also extremely difficult to measure. net to capture all relevant research, capitalize on the unique con- There is no typical case of human Characteristics of Trafficking trafficking, which often overlaps RISK FACTORS with other …

APA reports synthesize current psychological knowledge in a given area and may offer recommendations for future action. Forrest, Ph D; Claire Heather Durban Guthrie Gastañaga; Douglas C. Report of the Task Methodological Challenges A social ecological model (Mc Leroy, Bibeau, Steckler, & Glanz, 1988), used as the framework for this report, highlights the contributions of individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and societal factors as they pertain to human trafficking.

They do not constitute APA policy nor commit APA to the activities described therein. Successful prevention approaches need to take into account more than the vulnerabilities of individual women and girls.

This material may be reproduced in whole or in part without fees or permission provided acknowledgment is given to the American Psychological Association. Cunningham; Carolina de los Rios, Ph D; Smita Ekka Dewan; Carol A. Garrett-Akinsanya, Ph D; Rivka Greenberg, Ph D; Iva Grey Wolf, Ph D; Helen H. There is no typical case of human trafficking, which receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation shall be often overlaps with other closely related crimes, such as human considered “trafficking in persons” even if this does not smuggling, prostitution, intimate partner violence, and child involve any of the means set forth in subparagraph (a) of abuse.

and Eurostep for transcribing the interviews, for research support, and for the desk ..... Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 31(2), 71-87.

to free their families of the grief that comes with the awareness that their so Based on lessons learned, we must work together with civil ... Wyche, Ph D (2012 Marcy Rudins Chair); and Antonette M. Stockholm Syndrome: Psychiatric diagnosis or urban myth?

In addition to gender, PTSD (Jung, Song, Chong, Seo, & Chae, 2008; Mc Clanahan, variables contributing to a person’s vulnerability include individ- Mc Clelland, Abram, & Teplin, 1999; Sallman, 2010).

3 ual attributes such as age; membership in a marginalized group; prior victimization and trauma; developmental, emotional, and cognitive factors; disabilities; immigrant or refugee status; and family disruption (Pierce, 2009; Ugarte, Zarate, & Farley, 2003; Van Dorn et al., 2005). Conceptualizing juvenile prostitution as child maltreatment: Findings from the National Juvenile Prostitution Study.